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Yibbum or Levirate Marriage, in Judaism, is one of the most complex types of marriages mandated by Torah law (Deuteronomy 25:5-10). According to the law, the brother of a man who died without children has an obligation to marry the widow. However, if the one of the parties refuses to go through with the marriage, both are required to go through a ceremony known as Chalitzah, involving a symbolic act of renunciation of their right to perform this marriage. Jewish law (Halakha) has seen a gradual decline of yibbum in favour of chalitzah, to the point where in most contemporary Jewish communities the former is strongly discouraged.

The concept of yibbum is not unique to Judaism. Known as "levirate marriage" (when the marriage is to the deceased's brother) or "widow inheritance" (when it is to any surviving male relative), it has been practised by other societies with a strong clan structure. It is or was known in societies including the Mongols and Tibetans.