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The Toshavim (Hebrew word meaning "God-Fearers"; Greek equivalent is "Sebioi") are messianic non-Jews who from the earliest of times have worshipped the Name of the Hebrew Elohim.

Throughout the Old-Testament we see "Toshavim" types; 'strangers who dwell with you'. These dwelt with the Israelites and were given some basic laws to follow. Such as in Leviticus 17:12-13, "Therefore I have said to the people of Israel, no person among you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger who sojourns among you eat blood".

In the New Testament Period other "Toshavim" were members of the gentile-community who affiliate themselves to some degree with Jewish worship, who are interested in Jewish-morality and monotheism yet are not in obedience to some aspects of the Jewish Law (often circumcision) as a "proselyte" would be.

The Gospels give no explicit mentions of Toshavim however there are places we might infer this, the most obvious is John 12:20. The Greeks were not Jews as they were among Jews. They’re still known by their Hellenistic name and they were worshipping at a Jewish feast, so could be Toshavim. But what makes this more likely is by cross-referencing this with Acts 17:4,12.

Toshavim would be taught in the synagogues that circumcision was the way into the covenant, yet Paul taught it by faith alone. This seems to be the specific debate in Galatians 2:16-21.