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The Shomronim (Samaritans), known in the Talmud as Kuthim, are an ethic group of the Levant. Ethnically, they are descended from a group of Israelite inhabitants that have connections to ancient Samaria from the beginning of the Babylonian Exile up to the beginning of the Christian era. The Shomronim, however, derive their name not from this geographical designation, but rather from the term Shamerim, "keepers [of the law]".

Religiously, they are the adherents to Samaritanism, a religion based on the Torah, that acknowledged only the Pentateuch as inspired by God. They also deny Jerusalem as the religious centre, opting instead for Mount Gerizim (John 4:20). This explains why they tried to obstruct Nehemiah's rebuilding of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 2:19, Nehemiah 4:2). Samaritans claim that their worship (as opposed to Judaism) is the true religion of the ancient Israelites, pre-dating the Temple in Jerusalem.

In 2005 there were about 700 Samaritans, living almost exclusively in Kiryat Luza on the Mount Gerizim near the city of Nablus (Sichem), and in the city of Holon in Israel. The Shomronim speak either Modern Hebrew (in Holon) or Palestinian Arabic (in Nablus) as their mother language. For liturgical purposes, Samaritan Hebrew and Samaritan Aramaic are used.

The Shomronim assert that Mount Gerizim was the original Holy Place of Israel from the time that Joshua conquered Israel and the ten tribes settled the land. According to the Bible, the story of Mount Gerizim takes us back to the story of the time when Moses ordered Joshua to take the Twelve Tribes of Israel to the mountains by Sichem and place half of the tribes, six in number, on the top of Mount Gerizim, the Mount of the Blessing, and the other half in Mount Ebal, the Mount of the Curse (Deuteronomy 11:29). The two mountains were used to symbolize the significance of the commandments and serve as a warning to whoever disobeyed them.

The Shomronim have insisted that they are direct descendants of the Northern Israelite tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, who survived the destruction of the Northern kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians in 722 BC.