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Judaism teaches that anyone can address God, and that God is close to each one; so many prayers commence with Avinu ("our" father). Nevertheless, Judaism regards it as unacceptable to appear overly familiar with God.

"And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had, yet being uncircumcised, that he (Abraham) might be the father of all those who believe, though they are not circumcised, that righteousness might be imputed unto them also" (Romans 4:11).

Thus Avraham avinu is "our" father not only to Jews but also to trusting Gentiles, hence to "all of us". Avraham avinu ("Abraham, our father") is a common phrase in rabbinic writing and in today's Siddur.

Avinu ShebaShammayim ("Our Father in heaven") open many Hebrew prayer. All the elements of Jesus' prayer may be found in the Judaism of His days:

"Our Father in Heaven, hallowed be your name.
Your Kingdom come.
Your will be done on earth, as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.
For Kingship, power and glory are yours for ever.
" (Matthew 6:9-13).

The lines 2 and 3 recall the first portion of the synagogue prayer known as Kaddish, which says, "Magnified and sanctified (Yitgadal v'yitkadash) be his great name throughout the world which he has created according to his will, and may he establish his Kingdom in your lifetime..."

The plural phrasing "Give us... Forgive us... Lead us... " is characteristically Jewish, focussing on the group rather than isolated individual.

The Talmud reports that "Whenever Rabbi Chiyya ben Abba fell on his face, in prayer, he used to say, 'May the Merciful One save us from the Tempter' (or 'evil')" (Kiddushin 81a).

The doxology "For Kingship, power and glory are yours for ever. Amen" echoes 1 Chronicles 29:11.